Over 4000 free audio and video lectures, seminars and teaching resources from Oxford University.
Skip to Content Skip to Navigation

economics

# Episode Title Description People Date
1 Creative Commons The technology trap - capital, labour and power in the age of automation Carl Frey discusses his book 'The Technology Trap' Carl Benedikt Frey 04 Dec 2019
2 Creative Commons Migration: the movement of humankind from prehistory to the present Robin Cohen discusses migration throughout history and in the present day. Robin Cohen 02 Dec 2019
3 Ending energy poverty: reframing the poverty discourse The President of the Rockefeller Foundation discusses the need for new solutions for energy transformation and economic development. Rajiv J. Shah 27 Nov 2019
4 Surviving the cash crunch: Bhekisisa's road to non-profit health and social justice journalism Mia Malan, journalist, gives a talk for the Reuters Institute seminar series. Mia Malan 18 Oct 2019
5 Creative Commons Fighting against Poverty in the African Great Lakes Region: a question of Power and Resistance AfOx Visiting Fellow, Dr Aymar Bisoka from the Catholic University of Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo delivered this seminar co-hosted by AfOx and the African House at Christ Church College. Aymar Bisoka 23 Sep 2019
6 Creative Commons Gender and water access- leveraging on social capital for inclusive access AfOx Visiting Fellow Professor Salome Bukachi, University of Nairobi delivered this seminar co-hosted by AfOx and the African House at Christ Church College. Salome Bukachi 20 Sep 2019
7 OxPeace 2019: Peace in the Anthropocene: Final plenary: Where to from here? Dr Noele Crossley chairs the final plenary 'Where to from here?' with Steve Killelea AM, Founder & Executive Chair at the Institute for Economics and Peace. Steve Killelea 08 Jul 2019
8 Creative Commons New economic and moral foundations for the Anthropocene Prof Beinhocker will argue that by changing the ideologies, narratives, and memes that govern our economic system, we can create the political space required to rapidly transform to a sustainable and just economic system. Eric Beinhocker 24 Jun 2019
9 Creative Commons From pollution to solution: will China save the planet? Barbara Finamore discusses whether China will take the lead in saving our planet from environmental catastrophe. Barbara Finamore, Radhika Khosla 24 Jun 2019
10 Creative Commons The future of the corporation, economy and society Professor Sir Paul Collier and Professor Colin Mayer CBE will share the latest thinking and research into the future of capitalism and the corporation to understand how business might be changed to make it work better for society. Colin Mayer, Paul Collier 19 Jun 2019
11 Creative Commons Changing technology, changing economics Prof Diane Coyle discusses how digital technologies are changing economics. Diane Coyle 14 Jun 2019
12 Creative Commons Is the human species slowing down? Prof Danny Dorling discusses the idea that that humanity is slowing down in almost everything that we do, and what this means for our future. Danny Dorling 14 Jun 2019
13 Creative Commons Navigating knowledge: new tools for the journey Like the wind, knowledge can be difficult to see or grasp, but if well-harnessed, it can help us do extraordinary things. Penny Mealy 11 Jun 2019
14 Creative Commons Unlocking digital competition Is competition in the digital economy desirable? Does it currently exist? Is it possible? Is there anything policy can do? Jason Furman 11 Jun 2019
15 Driving Africa's prosperity through sustainable and innovative practices Guest lecture by the 6th President of Mauritius- Prof Ameenah Gurib-Fakim. Ameenah Gurib-Fakim 04 Jun 2019
16 Creative Commons How complexity can resolve the crisis in economics Professor Doyne Farmer will discuss the constraints of current economic models and propose complexity economics as a solution. J Doyne Farmer 30 May 2019
17 Lincoln Leads in Economics 2018 Economics: Should money make the world go round? Ian Crawford, Jessica Milligan 02 Apr 2019
18 Creative Commons On Purpose and Profit: Deciphering the Economics of Mutuality What is the right level of profit for a company? Bruno Roche 26 Mar 2019
19 The Rise of the Egyptian Middle Class: Socio-Economic Mobility and Public Discontent from Nasser to Sadat Relli Shechter (St Antony’s College) gives a talk for the Middle East Centre, on 29th January 2019. Relli Shechter 08 Mar 2019
20 Taylor Lecture 2019: Yanis Varoufakis Realistic Utopias versus Dystopic Realities: Reflections on writing about an alternative economic present. Yanis Varoufakis 20 Feb 2019
21 OxPeace 2018: How Business affects the chance of peace: the upside – jobs; the downside – crooks; and what to do about them Professor Sir Paul Collier delivers the 2018 OxPeace Conference Keynote lecture, discussing ‘How Business affects the chance of peace: the upside – jobs; the downside – crooks; and what to do about them.’ Paul Collier 16 Nov 2018
22 OxPeace 2018: The economics of conflict versus the economics of peacebuilding and sustainable peace Marcel Smits, Institute of Economics and Peace, discusses ‘The economics of conflict versus the economics of peacebuilding and sustainable peace’ at the 2018 Oxpeace Conference. Marcel Smits 16 Nov 2018
23 Economics for the Human Race An argument that a deeper understanding of modern economics and its insights is essential for reclaiming that connection. Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo 10 May 2018
24 Creative Commons The Gulf Crisis Madawi al-Rasheed (LSE) and Courtney Freer (LSE), give a talk for the Middle East Centre Seminar Series at St Anthony's College Oxford, chaired by Toby Matthiesen (St Anthony's College). Madawi al-Rasheed, Courtney Freer, Toby Matthiesen 29 Jan 2018
25 Wall Street Goes to War In this provocative seminar, Dr Sean McFate, author, novelist and expert in foreign policy and national security strategy, looks at the neglected area of the economics of war. Sean McFate 16 Nov 2017
26 Lincoln Leads in Economics The first instalment of our 'Lincoln Leads' series asks the question ‘Are we taught to become ‘economically viable products’?’ Margaret Stevens, Garima Jaju, David Weston, Sudheesh Ramapurath Chemmencheri 22 Sep 2017
27 Women in India’s waste economy In this Departmental Seminar, Prof. Barbara Harriss-Whiten draws on anthropology, economics and politics to examine the role of women in Indian society. 12 May 2017. Barbara Harriss-White 26 Jul 2017
28 UK National Debt: A Historical Perspective The UK national debt is currently the highest it's ever been, and a lot larger than many other countries. This talk takes a look behind the figures, and asks why it is important, whether we should be worried, and looks at the reasons for its growth. Martin Slater 07 Apr 2017
29 Ending Poverty? Linda Yueh (Fellow by Special Election in Economics) talks about ending poverty. Linda Yueh 03 Apr 2017
30 Free Will, Free Markets and the Future of Freedom Raoul Martinez gives a talk for Mansfield College. Raoul Martinez 22 Mar 2017
31 Creative Commons Stuck! Britain’s social mobility problem The Sutton Trust’s Chief Executive, Dr Lee Elliot Major, will argue that Britain has failed to address its problem of low social mobility, drawing on a range of international evidence. Lee Elliot Major 24 Jan 2017
32 Creative Commons Socio­economic inequalities in education achievement and student outcomes Anna Vignoles, Professor of Education and Director of Research at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge and a trustee of the Nuffield Foundation, gives a talk for the Department of Education Public Seminar Series. Anna Vignoles 17 Jan 2017
33 What do undergraduate students really think about money? With Dr Neil Harrison University of the West of England. This seminar will synthesise the findings of four recent research projects focused on contemporary students’ opinions and behaviours around money. Neil Harrison 15 Nov 2016
34 How can we understand our complex economy? - J. Doyne Farmer We are getting better at predicting things about our environment - the impact of climate change for example. But what about predicting our collective effect on ourselves? J Doyne Farmer 10 Nov 2016
35 Session 6 Sixth session in the Perceptions of Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, held in Oxford in June 2016. Elleke Boehmer, Roger Crisp, Ashwini Deshpande, Devaki Jain 09 Aug 2016
36 Session 5 Fifth session in the Perceptions of Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, held in Oxford in June 2016. Elleke Boehmer, Francesca Rhodes, Lloyd Pratt, Tarunabh Khaitan 09 Aug 2016
37 Session 4 Fourth session in the Perceptions of Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, held in Oxford in June 2016. Diane Elson, Elleke Boehmer, Linda McDowell, Roger Crisp 09 Aug 2016
38 Session 3 Third session in the Perceptions of Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, held in Oxford in June 2016. Alfred Gathorne-Hardy, Ashwini Deshpande, Devaki Jain, Diane Elson 09 Aug 2016
39 Session 2 Second session in the Perceptions of Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, held in Oxford in June 2016. Elleke Boehmer, Roger Crisp, Lloyd Pratt, Ashwini Deshpande 09 Aug 2016
40 Session 1 First session in the Perceptions of Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, held in Oxford in June 2016. Devaki Jain, Roger Crisp, Martin O'Neill, Jennifer Sheehy-Skeffington 09 Aug 2016
41 Marxism Host Aled Walker and guests Cameron J. Quinn and Xavier Cohen discuss the life, the work, and the legacy of Karl Marx. Aled Walker, Cameron J Quinn, Xavier Cohen 29 Jun 2016
42 Creative Commons News in the digital age, and how The Economist fits in Tom Standage, Deputy Editor, The Economist, gives a talk for the The Business and Practice of Journalism seminar series. Introduction by Richard Sambrook. Tom Standage 09 Jun 2016
43 Creative Commons Emerging Market Multinationals in the 21st Century Professor Avinash Dixit, the Sanjaya Lall Visiting Professor 2016, leads a panel discussion reviewing and explaining the rapid growth of emerging market multinationals over the last three decades. Avinash Dixit, Richard Peto, Tim Besley, Robert Wade 26 May 2016
44 Power People: what are we doing with all that energy? Did you know that you are in charge of a power station? It's true. Every time you flick a light switch, a power station somewhere in the UK will respond and generate that little bit of extra power you need for your light. Phil Grunewald 05 May 2016
45 Opening Remarks Dimitris Papanikolaou, Professor of Modern Greek Studies, St Cross College, University of Oxford, gives the opening remarks to the conference. Dimitris Papanikolaou 28 Apr 2016
46 Turning Infrastructures on their Head Dimitris Dalakoglou (VU University, Amsterdam) gives the second talk in the fourth panel; Philanthropy or Solidarity? Ethical Dilemmas about Humanitarian Action in Times of Austerity. Dimitris Dalakoglou 28 Apr 2016
47 Philanthropy or Solidarity? Ethical Dilemmas about Humanitarian Action in Times of Austerity Dimitrios Theodossopoulos (University of Kent) gives the first talk in the fourth panel; Citizenship, Networks, Publics Dimitrios Theodossopoulos 28 Apr 2016
48 Depicting the Pain of Others: Photography, Refugees and the Ethics of Seeing in the Aegean Shores George Giannakopoulos (Queen Mary, University of London) gives the second talk in the third panel; Crisis in the Frame. George Giannakopoulos 28 Apr 2016
49 Representing the Greek Depression: The Photography of Crisis Penelope Petsini (Independent scholar and critic, Athens), gives the first talk in the third panel; Crisis in the Frame. Penelope Petsini 28 Apr 2016
50 Pride and Prejudice: Archeopolitics and the Iconology of the Crisis Dimitris Tziovas (University of Birmingham), gives the second talk in the second panel Using Cultural Capital. Dimitris Tziovas 28 Apr 2016
51 Poems that Warn and Console: Appropriations of C.P.Cavafy at the Dawn of the Greek Financial Crisis Foteini Dimirouli (University of Oxford) gives the first talk in Panel 2: Using Cultural Capital. Foteini Dimirouli 28 Apr 2016
52 Narratives of the Greek Crisis: Books vs. Social Media? Eleni Papargyriou (King’s College, University of London) gives the second presentation from the first panel Writing (in) the Crisis. Eleni Papargyriou 28 Apr 2016
53 “Not a Diagnosis, but a Symptom”: Contemporary Greek Poetry in Transition Thodoris Chiotis (Onassis Cultural Foundation, Athens) gives first presentation from the first panel Writing (in) the Crisis. Thodoris Chiotis 28 Apr 2016
54 From the Crisis to Metamorphosis: History, Trauma and Loss in C. Oikonomou’s Kati tha ginei tha deis and D. Papamarkos’s MetaPoesis Vassiliki Kaisidou (University of Oxford) gives the third talk in the fourth panel; 'Continuities and Ruptures': The 'Crisis' as a new period in Greek history? Vassiliki Kaisidou 26 Apr 2016
55 “Greek drama”: The role of heritage in spectacle creation during the Greek economic crisis Mina Dragouni (UCL Institute for Sustainable Heritage) gives the second talk in the fourth panel 'Continuities and Ruptures': The 'Crisis' as a new period in Greek history? Mina Dragouni 26 Apr 2016
56 Crisis and memory on the foreign stage: The bilingual Abandon the Citizens Maria Mytilinaki Kennedy (CUNY) gives the third talk in the panel; Renegotiations from the 'outside': International Discourses and Diasporic Perspectives. Maria Mytilinaki Kennedy 26 Apr 2016
57 A love-hate relationship? The impact of historical Philhellenism on Germany’s view of the “Greek Crisis” Dr. Helen Roche (University of Cambridge) gives the second talk in the third panel; Renegotiations from the 'outside': International Discourses and Diasporic Perspectives. Helen Roche 26 Apr 2016
58 The “Polytechnic generation” in modern Greek “literature of the crisis”: the cases of Petros Markaris and Rhea Galanaki Yannis Vangelokostas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), gives the third talk in panel 2; A Panorama of the 20th Century: Dominant Discourses, Resistance and Culpability. Yannis Vangelokostas 26 Apr 2016
59 Which Side Are You On?: Historical Divisions as Identity Re-inventions during the Greek Crisis Ioanna Manoussaki-Adamopoulou (UCL), gives the second talk in panel 2; A Panorama of the 20th Century: Dominant Discourses, Resistance and Culpability. Ioanna Manoussaki-Adamopoulou 26 Apr 2016
60 Howling Kleftika: re-writing the Beats in the post-December youth (sub)cultures Nikos Kalogiros (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), gives the first talk in panel 2; A Panorama of the 20th Century: Dominant Discourses, Resistance and Culpability. Nikos Kalogiros 26 Apr 2016
61 Smyrna in Your Pocket: History, Emotion and the Drama of Refugees Kristina Gedgaudaitė (University of Oxford), gives the third talk in Panel 1; Crisis and Catastrophe: The Politics of Memory Between Moments of 'Crisis'. Kristina Gedgaudaitė 26 Apr 2016
62 Kinship and post-war trauma: Re-imagining the Asia Minor Catastrophe in times of crisis in Dimosthenis Papamarkos Angeliki Mousiou (University of Oxford), gives the second talk on Panel 1; Crisis and Catastrophe: The Politics of Memory Between Moments of 'Crisis'. Angeliki Mousiou 26 Apr 2016
63 Time, Space and Narrative: Multiplicity of Politics in the Graphic Novel 'Aivali' Elžbieta Banytė (Vilnius University), gives the first talk on Panel 1; Crisis and Catastrophe: The Politics of Memory Between Moments of 'Crisis'. Elžbieta Banytė 26 Apr 2016
64 Creative Commons Basketball legend, former Congressman and Rhodes Scholar, Tom McMillen (University, 1974) Multi-talented alumnus Tom McMillen describes his extraordinary life as a professional basketball player, scholar, politician and businessman. Tom McMillen 15 Apr 2016
65 Creative Commons Towards Synthesis of the Youth’s Counter-urbanisation Movement and the Governmental-led Measures for Shrinking Communities in Japan Dr Taro Hirai, Hirosaki University, gives a talk for the Nissan Institute 'Slow Cities? The revitalisation of shrinking communities in Japan' on 10th March, 2016. Taro Hirai 07 Apr 2016
66 Creative Commons Achieving an Asia-Pacific Depopulation Dividend: Evidence and Experience from Shrinking Regions in Japan and New Zealand Dr Peter Matanle, University of Sheffield, gives a talk for the Nissan Institute 'Slow Cities? The revitalisation of shrinking communities in Japan' on 10th March, 2016. Peter Matanle 07 Apr 2016
67 Creative Commons The Degradation and Regeneration of Rural Areas in Japan Professor Hirokazu Sakuno, Shimane University, gives talk for the Nissan Institute 'Slow Cities? The revitalisation of shrinking communities in Japan' on 10th March, 2016. Hirokazu Sakuno 07 Apr 2016
68 Creative Commons The Slow City Approach and the Resilience of Japanese Shrinking Communities Heuishilja Chang, University of Oxford, gives a talk for the Nissan Institute 'Slow Cities? The revitalisation of shrinking communities in Japan' on 10th March, 2016. Heuishilja Chang 07 Apr 2016
69 Creative Commons Cittaslow Experiences against the Social Desertification and to Promote Local Micro-economies on Resilient Way Pier Giorgio Oliveti, Cittaslow International, gives a talk for the Nissan Institute for the Slow Cities? The revitalisation of shrinking communities in Japan on 10th March, 2016. Pier Giorgio Oliveti 07 Apr 2016
70 Creative Commons From Growth to Shrinkage: Managing Population Decline in Western-Europe Professor Gert-Jan Hospers, Radboud University, the University of Twente, gives a talk for the Nissan Institute as part of the ;Slow Cities? The revitalisation of shrinking communities in Japan; on 10th March, 2016. Gert-Jan Hospers 07 Apr 2016
71 Creative Commons The Political Economy of Violence in the Middle East: What Questions Should the Social Scientist Ask? Seminar by Dr Adeel Malik (Globe Fellow, Islamic Centre Lecturer in the Economies of Muslim Societies) at the Middle East Centre, 12th February 2016. Adeel Malik 19 Feb 2016
72 Creative Commons Best-selling economist, Tim Harford (Brasenose, 1992) Tim Harford shares his prize-winning economic insights, explaining why you can’t buy a decent used car and why you should exercise caution with big data. Tim Harford 11 Feb 2016
73 Creative Commons China's Economic Nationalists: from Bretton Woods to Bandung Dr Amy King, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, The Australian National University, gives a talk for the Asian Studies Centre. Amy King 08 Feb 2016
74 Intimate Rivals: Japanese Domestic Politics and a Rising China Sheila Smith (Council on Foreign Relations) gives a talk for the Asian Studies Centre on 24th November 2015. Sheila A Smith 08 Dec 2015
75 Creative Commons Is there another economic crash on the way? Sir Vince talks about some of the issues raised in his latest book 'After the Storm' Vince Cable 29 Oct 2015
76 American Higher Education: Observations from the Field Robert Scott (President Emeritus, Adelphi University, and RAI), gives a talk for the Rothermere American Institute on the state of American higher education. Robert Scott 28 Oct 2015
77 Creative Commons Rich and poor: a cause for social unrest? at the Oxford Literary Festival 2015 John Kampfner and Katrine Marçal discuss the growing gap between rich and poor and its implications for society, chaired by Professor Ian Goldin. John Kampfner, Ian Goldin, Katrine Marcal 18 Aug 2015
78 Creative Commons The economics of tropical diseases Economics and health are interlinked in many ways, as seen in the vicious cycle between poverty and ill health. Yoel Lubell 28 Jul 2015
79 Creative Commons The economics of tropical diseases Economics and health are interlinked in many ways, as seen in the vicious cycle between poverty and ill health. Yoel Lubell 28 Jul 2015
80 Creative Commons Ian Goldin on the Oxford Martin School Ian Goldin, Professor of Globalisation and Development and Director of the Oxford Martin School, discusses the efforts of researchers at the Oxford Martin School to address the most pressing global challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Ian Goldin 15 Jul 2015
81 Lessons from Studying the Japanese Economy Professor Richard B . Freeman (Harvard University), Mark's former supervisor, talked about Dr Rebick's broader contribution to the field of Japanese Economy and the shape of that filed more generally. Richard B Freeman 09 Jul 2015
82 African Studies Annual Lecture Is Africa Rising? Winnie Byanyima, Executive Director of Oxfam International, gives the 2015 Annual Lecture for the African Studies Centre. Winnie Byanyima 02 Jul 2015
83 Sanjaya Lall lecture 2015 Professor Abhijit Banerjee (Sanjaya Lall Visiting Professor) delivers the 2015 Sajaya Lall Lecture. Abhijit Banerjee, Ingrid Lunt, John Vickers, Vincent Crawford 08 Jun 2015
84 Creative Commons Capital failure - restoring trust in the financial system Professor David Vines gives a talk onthe financial system. David Vines 17 Feb 2015
85 Financial projections - Chapter 5 Dr. Thomas Hellmann, Academic Director of the Entrepreneurship Centre at the Saïd School of Business, University of Oxford, presents final examples of financial projections. Thomas Hellmann 22 Dec 2014
86 Financial projections - Chapter 4 Dr. Thomas Hellmann, Academic Director of the Entrepreneurship Centre at the Saïd School of Business, University of Oxford, presents what are the classic mistakes that the entrepreneurs make when they do financial projections. Thomas Hellmann 22 Dec 2014
87 Financial projections - Chapter 3 Dr. Thomas Hellmann, Academic Director of the Entrepreneurship Centre at the Saïd School of Business, University of Oxford, explains what are the cost projections, integrated projections and how to manage the cash flow. Thomas Hellmann 22 Dec 2014
88 Financial projections - Chapter 2 Dr. Thomas Hellmann, Academic Director of the Entrepreneurship Centre at the Saïd School of Business, University of Oxford, explains what are the cost projections, integrated projections and how to manage the cash flow. Thomas Hellmann 22 Dec 2014
89 Financial projections - Chapter 1 Dr. Thomas Hellmann, Academic Director of the Entrepreneurship Centre at the Saïd School of Business, University of Oxford, explains the term financial projections. Thomas Hellmann 22 Dec 2014
90 Raising Venture Capital Chapter 6 Christian Hernandez, Co-Founder and Managing Partner at White Star Capital, summarises the lecture with final remarks on how to raise venture capital. This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford on November 25th, 2014. Christian Hernandez 18 Dec 2014
91 Raising Venture Capital Chapter 5 Christian Hernandez, Co-Founder and Managing Partner at White Star Capital, explains the ratio of opportunities and how the investment process looks like from the venture capitalists perspective. Christian Hernandez 18 Dec 2014
92 Raising Venture Capital Chapter 4 Christian Hernandez, Co-Founder and Managing Partner at White Star Capital, explains what is bootstrapping. Christian Hernandez 18 Dec 2014
93 Raising Venture Capital Chapter 3 Christian Hernandez, Co-Founder and Managing Partner at White Star Capital,explains the dynamics between venture capitalists, shareholders and clients. Christian Hernandez 18 Dec 2014
94 Raising Venture Capital Chapter 2 Christian Hernandez, Co-Founder and Managing Partner at White Star Capital, presents trends in technology that are interesting for venture capital companies. Christian Hernandez 18 Dec 2014
95 Raising Venture Capital Chapter 1 Christian Hernandez, Co-Founder and Managing Partner at White Star Capital, explains what is venture capital. This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford on November 25th, 2014. Christian Hernandez 18 Dec 2014
96 How Can I Protect My Ideas? - Chapter 6 Robert Anderson, Intellectual Property Lawyer at Hogan Lovells, summarises the lecture with final remarks on intellectual property. This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford on November 18th, 2014. Robert Anderson 18 Dec 2014
97 How Can I Protect My Ideas? - Chapter 5 Robert Anderson, Intellectual Property Lawyer at Hogan Lovells, explains what are the commercial and practical matters to keep in mind when you want to protect your business idea.This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford o Robert Anderson 18 Dec 2014
98 How Can I Protect My Ideas? - Chapter 4 Robert Anderson, Intellectual Property Lawyer at Hogan Lovells, explains what is a patent. This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford on November 18th, 2014. Robert Anderson 18 Dec 2014
99 How Can I Protect My Ideas? - Chapter 3 Robert Anderson, Intellectual Property Lawyer at Hogan Lovells, explains what is a copyright. This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford on November 18th, 2014. Robert Anderson 18 Dec 2014
100 How Can I Protect My Ideas? - Chapter 2 Robert Anderson, Intellectual Property Lawyer at Hogan Lovells, explains what is a trademark. This lecture took place at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford on November 18th, 2014. Robert Anderson 18 Dec 2014