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forced migration

# Episode Title Description People Date
1 FMR 62 - Shared obstacles to return: Rohingya and South Sudanese The common barriers to return in the cases of Rohingya refugees and South Sudanese IDPs prompt serious questions about how to ensure the safety and voluntariness of returns. Daniel P Sullivan 14 Oct 2019
2 FMR 62 - South Sudanese returns: perceptions and responses Gaining insight into the experiences and perceptions of refugees can help ensure programming is better able to support refugees’ durable return and reintegration. Catherine Huser, Andrew Cunningham, Christine Kamau, Mary Obara 14 Oct 2019
3 FMR 62 - Return decision making by refugees There are multiple factors influencing refugees’ decisions to return to their country of origin, not all of which reflect conventional wisdom. Chloe Sydney 14 Oct 2019
4 FMR 62 - Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in India: return or integration? For Tamil refugees, considerations of sustainability affect their decision to remain in India or return to Sri Lanka. Their views and aspirations must inform planning for both integration and repatriation. Amaya Valcárcel Silvela 14 Oct 2019
5 FMR 62 - Syrians in Germany: individuals’ reasons for returning or remaining Syrian refugees in Europe are not one homogenous group but are individuals and families from different parts of Syria who have different experiences in exile and different expectations around return. Ahmad Al Ajlan 14 Oct 2019
6 FMR 62 - Working with ‘stayee’ communities: learning from Eritrea Better understanding of the perceptions and living conditions of the communities into which returnees will arrive may facilitate better integration of those returning from displacement. Georgia Cole 14 Oct 2019
7 FMR 62 - Repatriation principles under pressure The laws and norms established by the international community to ensure that organised repatriation takes place in a way that protects the rights of refugees are increasingly being violated. Jeff Crisp 14 Oct 2019
8 FMR 62 - Durable solutions for returnee children Durable solutions frameworks for measuring progress towards sustainable return and reintegration fail to specifically consider children’s different needs and experiences. Stefanie Barratt, Marion Guillaume, Josiah Kaplan 14 Oct 2019
9 FMR 62 - Syrian refugees’ return from Lebanon Analysis of return practices in Lebanon reveal challenges to voluntary, safe and dignified return. Tamirace Fakhoury, Derya Ozkul 14 Oct 2019
10 FMR 62 - Encouraging Syrian return: Turkey’s fragmented approach Turkey’s approach to encouraging refugees to return to Syria risks jeopardising the safety and voluntariness of such returns. Zeynep Sahin Mencutek 14 Oct 2019
11 FMR 62 - The politics of return from Jordan to Syria Return preparedness of Syrian refugees has become a prominent issue in Jordan, but the prospect of return raises numerous concerns. Julia Morris 14 Oct 2019
12 FMR 62 - Rethinking Somali refugee solutions in Kenya Amid uncertain return conditions, the repatriation of Somali refugees from Kenya risks leading to instances of forced return. Alternative avenues, such as local integration, should be explored. Peter Kirui, Suzanne Francis 14 Oct 2019
13 FMR 62 - Educating for return: Somali refugees in Dadaab Finding a ‘durable’ solution for Somali refugees in Dadaab means ensuring they have the knowledge, capacity, confidence and qualifications required for meaningful, lasting return. Ochan Leomoi, Abdikadir Abikar, HaEun Kim 14 Oct 2019
14 FMR 62 - Forced to return? Facilitated return of refugees to Myanmar Despite recent political developments in Myanmar and difficult conditions in Thailand, there has been widespread and deep-seated reluctance among refugees to participate in the official facilitated return mechanism. Yuka Hasegawa 14 Oct 2019
15 FMR 62 - A premature attempt at cessation There are many lessons to be learned from UNHCR’s controversial – and ultimately reversed – decision to end refugee status for Burmese Chins in India and Malaysia. Hamsa Vijayaraghavan, Pallavi Saxena 14 Oct 2019
16 FMR 62 - Repatriation with dignity The Rohingya in Bangladesh and Syrians in Lebanon have different expectations of what repatriation ‘with dignity’ would entail. Kerrie Holloway 14 Oct 2019
17 FMR 62 - Minority return: the way home Studying cases of successful minority return may help determine what policies could help other potential returnees. Djordje Stefanovic, Neophytos Loizides 14 Oct 2019
18 FMR 62 - Legal preparedness for return to Syria Preparation in terms of legal rights is crucial for Syrian refugees who are planning to return. Martin Clutterbuck, Laura Cunial, Paola Barsanti, Tina Gewis 14 Oct 2019
19 FMR 62 - Return to Syria after evading conscription Syrian refugees who have evaded military service face barriers to return which call into question the viability and sustainability of other refugee returns. Ahmad Araman, Shaza Loutfi 14 Oct 2019
20 FMR 62 - IDPs of East Beirut versus the Lebanese State This year marks the thirtieth anniversary of the Taif agreement that formally ended the Lebanese Civil War of 1975–1990. Three decades later, some communities remain internally displaced because of the actions of the State. Diala Lteif 14 Oct 2019
21 FMR 62 - Emerging options for durable solutions in Darfur IDPs in Darfur continue to face difficulties in securing a durable solution to their displacement. Recent developments may offer new hope for some, but complex challenges remain. Zurab Elzarov 14 Oct 2019
22 FMR 62 - Political and economic reintegration: key to successful return Refugees and IDPs require national and international actors to make concerted efforts to ensure that they are successfully reintegrated into the economic, social and political landscapes of their countries of origin. Barbra N Lukunka, Peter de Clercq 14 Oct 2019
23 FMR 62 - Returns in complex environments: the case of South Sudan Humanitarian agencies must be extremely cautious about how they support returns and relocations to ensure that they avoid causing harm or allowing humanitarian assistance to be instrumentalised by political actors. Babette Schots, Garth Smith 14 Oct 2019
24 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Preventing displacement, addressing root causes and the promise of the Global Compact on Refugees Preventing displacement by addressing its root causes requires a holistic approach and engagement by a wide range of actors. The starting point must be a better understanding of root causes and their complexity. Volker Türk 14 Oct 2019
25 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Shifting power and changing practice to support locally led peace building Building sustainable peace requires both a greater awareness of the dynamics of localised conflict and a willingness on the part of external actors to cede control to local actors. Alex Shoebridge 14 Oct 2019
26 FMR 62 Mini-feature - Land and conflict: taking steps towards peace Thousands of displaced Yazidis in Iraq have been assisted in making a safe, sustainable return through a project that addressed the complexity of issues around land tenure. Oumar Sylla, Ombretta Tempra, Filiep Decorte, Clarissa Augustinus 14 Oct 2019
27 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Community-level conflict prevention and peace building in DRC and Somalia There is growing recognition of the need to address the root causes of displacement through the perspective of the humanitarian-development-peace ‘triple nexus’. A locally led programme in DRC and Somalia reflects this approach and offers useful lessons. Wale Osofisan, Shuna Keen 14 Oct 2019
28 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Gang violence, GBV and hate crime in Central America: State response versus State responsibility Significant displacement is caused in Central America by gang violence, gender-based violence and hate crimes against LGBT+ people but State responses have failed to address their root causes. Vickie Knox 14 Oct 2019
29 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - The Palestinian refugee question: root causes and breaking the impasse Acknowledging the root causes of Palestinian displacement and objectively applying international law will be key to any solution to the Palestinian refugee question. Francesca P Albanese, Damian Lilly 14 Oct 2019
30 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Resilience spaces: rethinking protection Collaborative approaches to building capacities of urban IDPs and host communities are emerging as a more effective way of confronting the root causes of protracted and secondary displacement in informal settlements in Colombia. Pablo Cortés Ferrández 14 Oct 2019
31 FMR 60 - General - Implementing the Global Compacts: the importance of a whole-of-society approach The global community must now take incisive, coordinated action through a whole-of-society approach to push forward the effective implementation of the two Global Compacts. Tamara Domicelj, Carolina Gottardo 20 Feb 2019
32 FMR 60 - General - Localisation: we are frustrated, not stupid! The Grand Bargain promises much but an inherent lack of trust in the international system is hampering local capacity building. Listowell Efe Usen 20 Feb 2019
33 FMR 60 Evidence for education in emergencies: who decides and why it matters Analysis of educational research funding proposals submitted to Dubai Cares, a global education funder, indicates an alarming absence of input from local actors and end-users at all steps of the process. Nadeen Alalami 20 Feb 2019
34 FMR 60 - Feasible measurement of learning in emergencies: lessons from Uganda A new assessment tool aims to provide a rapid, holistic understanding of displaced learners' needs. Nikhit D'Sa, Allyson Krupar, Clay Westrope 20 Feb 2019
35 FMR 60 - Improving learning environments in emergencies through community participation An education in emergencies toolkit developed by Save the Children looks at how learning environments can be improved through community participation. Zeina Bali 20 Feb 2019
36 FMR 60 - Schooling gaps for Syrian refugees in Turkey Turkey and the wider international community must address gaps in educational provision so that Syrian refugees can access appropriate opportunities to learn. Melissa Hauber-Özer 20 Feb 2019
37 FMR 60 - Navigating curricula choices for Palestine refugees Curriculum choices matter greatly in countries that host large number of refugees for increasingly long periods of time. Jo Kelcey 20 Feb 2019
38 FMR 60 - Street schools and school buses: informal education provision in France In the face of increasingly limited access to schooling for asylum seekers and migrants in France, volunteer initiatives have sprung up to provide much-needed informal education. Maria Hagan 19 Feb 2019
39 FMR 60 - Early childhood development and psychosocial support in Syria Programming for early childhood development and psychosocial support needs to be able to evolve in order to cater for changing needs and to respond to emerging challenges. Fatima Khaddour 19 Feb 2019
40 FMR 60 - Foreword: Education – a humanitarian and development imperative For far too long, donors and the international community have neglected education in humanitarian response. Switzerland was no exception. Food, water, health and shelter were the usual priorities during emergencies, while education was considered more of Manuel Bessler 19 Feb 2019
41 FMR 60 - Gender equality in education in emergencies Evidence from programming built around this framework shows how a gender-responsive approach can alleviate the particular risks that face girls and boys during crisis and displacement. Eva Iversen, Else Oestergaard 19 Feb 2019
42 FMR 60 - From the editors In this issue of FMR, authors from around the world debate how better to enable access to quality education both in emergency settings and in resettlement and asylum contexts. Marion Couldrey, Jenny Peebles 01 Feb 2019
43 FMR 60 - Feeling safe enough to learn in a conflict zone Building an internal sense of safety while also teaching coping skills and how to remain alert to the very real risks outside is essential if psychosocial programming in Afghanistan is to provide a ‘safe space’ for children to learn in a context of high i Bethan McEvoy 01 Feb 2019
44 FMR 60 - Breaking the silence: sexual coercion and abuse in post-conflict education Experience from the Central African Republic makes clear that global efforts to increase numbers of children in school, particularly in conflict-affected areas and for displaced children, need to pay greater attention to safety and accountability. Sophie Bray-Watkins 01 Feb 2019
45 FMR 60 - Strengthening education systems for long-term education responses Implementation of programmes in DRC and Nigeria demonstrates how the building blocks for long-term improvements can be laid in the earliest stages of an education in emergencies response, even in the most challenging contexts. Thea Lacey, Marcello Viola 01 Feb 2019
46 FMR 60 - Jordan: education policy in transition As the education sector in Jordan moves from a humanitarian to a development response, a lack of planning for an appropriate transition risks excluding some groups of learners. Julie Chinnery 01 Feb 2019
47 FMR 60 - Applying learning theory to shape 'good learning' in emergencies: experience from Dadaab, Kenya Applying one learning theory retrospectively to a non-formal education programme for youth shows how learning theories can be used to assess learning in diverse EiE programmes. Allyson Krupar, Marina L Anselme 01 Feb 2019
48 FMR 60 - Child-friendly spaces: enhancing their role in improving learning outcomes Providing psychosocial support to children through the medium of child-friendly spaces can improve learning outcomes for children but requires more localised, partnership-driven and gender-responsive approaches and strengthened monitoring and evaluation. Gurvinder Singh, Charlotte Tocchio 01 Feb 2019
49 FMR 60 - Refugee children with communication disability in Rwanda: providing the educational services they need Research undertaken in Rwanda aims to provide firm evidence for use in improving access to inclusive educational services for refugee children with communication disability. Helen Barrett, Julie Marshall, Juliet Goldbart 01 Feb 2019
50 FMR 60 - Refugee education in Greece: integration or segregation? Although education policies have been devised to integrate these children into the Greek education system, these policies have actually led to some students being segregated. Giorgos Simopoulos, Antonios Alexandridis 01 Feb 2019
51 FMR 60 - Accessing and thriving in education in the UK Research shows that significant barriers confront refugee and asylum-seeker children arriving in the UK in terms of them getting into school and thriving in education. Catherine Gladwell 01 Feb 2019
52 FMR 60 - Learning in resettlement Education is a central element of resettled families’ lives and providing support to parents and children to learn about and integrate into the education system is essential. Marwa Belghazi 01 Feb 2019
53 FMR 60 - UK immigration policy: restrictions on asylum seekers' right to study Changes to immigration legislation in the UK have led to restrictions on many asylum seekers' right to study. Helen Baron 01 Feb 2019
54 FMR 60 - 'Education is key to life': The the importance of education from the perspective of displaced learners Students on the University of East London's OLIve course – a preparatory course for university access specifically tailored to refugees and asylum seekers in the UK – share experiences of accessing education as displaced learners. OLIve course Students, IT trainer, director of the OLIve course 01 Feb 2019
55 FMR 60 - Educating unaccompanied children in US shelters Educational services provided to unaccompanied children in government-funded shelters in the US must be examined more critically in order to better meet the children’s varied needs – and federal standards for public education. Kylie Diebold, Kerri Evans, Emily Hornung 01 Feb 2019
56 FMR 60 - Teachers in displacement: learning from Dadaab Despite the challenges they face, refugee teachers believe in the potential of education to transform the lives of refugee learners and communities. Their voices and needs must inform refugee education provision in order to improve access and outcomes. Mohamed Duale, Ochan Leomoi, Abdullahi Aden, Okello Oyat 01 Feb 2019
57 FMR 60 - Child labour and school attendance in Turkey Promoting self-sufficiency for displaced populations can have the unintended consequence of undermining efforts to provide education for all Syrian children. Ozlem Erden 01 Feb 2019
58 FMR 60 - Inter-sectoral cooperation for Afghan refugee education in Iran A recent decree in Iran removed a legal barrier to undocumented refugee children attending school but other barriers remain. One non-governmental organisation discusses the successes and challenges of adopting an inter-sectoral approach. Reem Shammout, Olivier Vandecasteele 01 Feb 2019
59 FMR 60 - Connected learning: the future for higher education? Higher education institutions in Lebanon should consider how connected learning can improve access to higher education for young refugees and members of the host community. Hana Addam El-Ghali, Emma Ghosn 01 Feb 2019
60 FMR 60 - Connected learning: a refugee assessment Connected learning offers the opportunity to expand access to higher education for refugees, benefiting both individuals and communities. Moise Dushime, Eugenie Manirafasha, Kalenga Mbonyinshuti 01 Feb 2019
61 FMR 60 - The importance of access and accreditation: learning from the Thailand–Myanmar border The displaced community on the Thailand–Myanmar border has long provided for the basic educational needs of large numbers of children. Providing accredited education, however, remains a struggle. Mary Purkey, Megan Irving 01 Feb 2019
62 FMR 60 - Adult literacy: an essential component of the CRRF Literacy needs among the refugee populations of Uganda and Ethiopia are vast, yet although both are CRRF pilot countries – and therefore in theory committed to promoting literacy – functional adult literacy is barely supported at all. Massimo Lanciotti 01 Feb 2019
63 Creative Commons Migratory flows, colonial encounters and the histories of transatlantic slavery Olivette Otele explores how histories of transatlantic slavery impact on contemporary questions of migration Olivette Otele 26 Jan 2017
64 Creative Commons People on the Move in an Era of Climate Change: Obstacles and Opportunities Professor Jane McAdam, Kaldor Centre for International Refugee, University of New South Wales & Asad Rehman, Friends of the Earth Climate Campaign - June 2016 Jane McAdam, Asad Rehman 21 Oct 2016
65 Creative Commons From Search to Exploration Barriers and opportunities in using oral history archives as data resources Jakub Mlynář 16 May 2016
66 FMR 51 - From the Editors Europe is experiencing the mass movements of displaced people in a way that it has largely been immune from for decades. Marion Couldrey, Maurice Herson 19 Dec 2015
67 FMR 51 - Foreword: Banking on mobility over a generation Europe need not renounce its freedom of movement: it should instead develop a better controlled mobility regime. It would then, in effect, much better control its borders. François Crépeau 19 Dec 2015
68 FMR 51 - Migrants, refugees, history and precedents There is much about earlier migration crises that today’s European policymakers might profitably recall. Colin Bundy 19 Dec 2015
69 FMR 51 - Refugee protection in Europe: time for a major overhaul? A number of myths surrounding refugee protection may obscure our understanding and complicate the search for solutions, but there are also clear and realistic possibilities for change in the EU’s body of law to enable better outcomes for states & refugees Maria Stavropoulou 19 Dec 2015
70 FMR 51 - Simplifying refugee status determination There is a persuasive case to be made for simplifying refugee status determination in the European Union. Kelly Staples 19 Dec 2015
71 FMR 51 - Arrivals on the island of Lesbos, summer 2015 Lesbos, population 85,000, received more than 85,000 refugees and migrants in 2015 up to the end of August. Fotini Rantsiou 19 Dec 2015
72 FMR 51 - It need not be like this Creating space for smugglers and failing to provide humanitarian assistance are European failures. Opening legal routes to Europe could deal with both. Cathryn Costello 19 Dec 2015
73 FMR 51 - The Mediterranean challenge within a world of humanitarian crises While the high number of migrants and refugees arriving in Europe in 2015 has increased pressures and tensions, this is not a crisis beyond the capability of Europe to manage together as a Union. William Lacy Swing 19 Dec 2015
74 FMR 51 - A network of camps on the way to Europe While makeshift camps, such as those that have proliferated around Europe, may form spaces of resourcefulness and agency which cannot be accommodated in state-run detention camps, none of these temporary spaces is a definitive solution. Irit Katz 19 Dec 2015
75 FMR 51 - Trickery in Dublin’s shadow Border practices at the Italy-Austria border are part of a wider trend of questionable practices used by EU Member States which render irrelevant both the Schengen Agreement and the Dublin Regulation. Marco Funk 19 Dec 2015
76 FMR 51 - Abuses at Europe’s borders Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely. Duncan Breen 19 Dec 2015
77 FMR 51 - Melilla: mirage en route to Europe Among those who have reached Melilla, there seems to be no consensus as to whether they see themselves as being in transit in Europe or still in Africa. Frida Bjørneseth 19 Dec 2015
78 FMR 51 - Search and rescue in the central Mediterranean Although people are aware of the risks of the sea crossing, nothing can really prepare them for the experience. Hernan del Valle, Rabia Ben Ali, Will Turner 19 Dec 2015
79 FMR 51 - Safety, rescue at sea and legal access If it is to live up to its own values, the EU needs to step up search-and-rescue operations in the Mediterranean and open up legal means for access to protection in Europe in order to avoid the need for risky journeys across the Mediterranean. Stefan Kessler 19 Dec 2015
80 FMR 51 - Migrant arrivals and deaths in the Mediterranean: what do the data really tell us? The policy and media gaze focuses on numbers of migrant arrivals and deaths. There are problems in the data for both categories. Frank Laczko, Ann Singleton, Tara Brian, Marzia Rango 19 Dec 2015
81 FMR 51 - Irregular migration by sea Irregular migration by sea is not a solely Mediterranean phenomenon. N/A 19 Dec 2015
82 FMR 51 - Afghan and Somali (post-)conflict migration to the EU There are invisible drivers of migration for Afghans and Somalis to Europe, caused by decades of conflict. Although officially considered as ‘post-conflict’, the reality is very different. Nassim Majidi 19 Dec 2015
83 FMR 51 - Understanding why Eritreans go to Europe Why do Eritreans risk their lives on perilous journeys to Europe? Why they don’t stay in neighbouring countries where they could get safety and protection? Mogos O Brhane 19 Dec 2015
84 FMR 51 - No option but Europe Asylum seekers’ stories point to the need for effective protection for refugees and to facilitate greater opportunities to access it, both within Europe and beyond. Yotam Gidron, Olivia Bueno 19 Dec 2015
85 FMR 51 - Iraqi refugee households in Jordan: the active search for solutions For Iraqi refugees in Jordan the decision to leave for Europe is very much influenced by the experience of waiting in the region. Mirjam A Twigt 19 Dec 2015
86 FMR 51 - Tragedy on the way to Europe: a perspective from Africa As Europe grapples with the challenges of responding to the arival of large numbers of migrants, it is vital to keep in mind that the people involved have not left their homes and countries for no reason. Many of them would rather have stayed at home. J O Moses Okello 19 Dec 2015
87 FMR 51 - EU cooperation with third countries: rethinking concepts and investments Despite ‘externalising’ its immigration agenda, the EU has largely failed to develop a coherent and effective overall strategy, to the detriment of migrants and would-be asylum seekers. Elizabeth Collett 19 Dec 2015
88 FMR 51 - The road more travelled? Onward movement of asylum seekers and refugees The phenomenon of onward movement creates formidable challenges for states, asylum seekers and refugees, and the international protection system as a whole. Madeline Garlick 19 Dec 2015
89 FMR 51 - European Union readmission agreements The use of readmission agreements has prompted a debate on their compliance with international law, in particular the provisions on protection for refugees and asylum seekers. Mehdi Rais 19 Dec 2015
90 FMR 51 - A coast-guard officer’s perspective: reinforcing migration through legal channels Given that we cannot always rescue refugees or economic migrants in danger at the EU’s maritime borders, efforts are needed to reinforce legal channels for migration to Europe and to prevent refugees and migrants being exploited by criminal networks. Kostas Karagatsos 19 Dec 2015
91 FMR 51 - The extra-territorial processing of asylum claims Calls for the creation of asylum processing centres outside the EU are being renewed. But significant objections and obstacles remain. Sarah Léonard, Christian Kaunert 19 Dec 2015
92 FMR 51 - Refugees in Serbia: on the way to a better life More than 450,000 people passed through Serbia from the beginning of 2015 until the middle of November. However, even in 2014 the numbers were large, and growing. Maša Vukčević, Jelena Momirović, Danka Purić 19 Dec 2015
93 FMR 51 - Passing through Greece The eagerness of refugees and migrants to leave Greece and travel to other European countries is quite evident. Marco Mogiani 19 Dec 2015
94 FMR 51 - Bulgaria’s struggle at the frontline Bulgaria has struggled to deal appropriately with mass irregular migration. It has also failed to address integration. Eleanor E Roberts 19 Dec 2015
95 FMR 51 - Protecting asylum seekers in mixed flows: lessons from Bulgaria In the context of a large number of arrivals, states may introduce blanket measures aimed at preventing irregular migration. These, however, may curtail the rights of asylum seekers. Mariya Shisheva 19 Dec 2015
96 FMR 51 - Envisioning a Common European Asylum System A bolder approach is needed if the European Union is to overcome fragmentation and manage refugee movements effectively and in accordance with international obligations. Volker Türk 19 Dec 2015
97 FMR 51 - Are asylum and immigration really a European Union issue? Attempts to find an EU-wide solution to asylum may be preventing the finding of workable solutions at the bi-lateral or national level. Joanne van Selm 19 Dec 2015
98 FMR 51 - Social protection: a fourth durable solution? Although asylum seekers and refugees in Europe and in Latin America are very different in terms of numbers, a solution being implemented by Brazil and Ecuador may show the European Union a way forward on sharing the responsibility within a regional bloc. Carolina Montenegro 19 Dec 2015
99 FMR 51 - In search of fairness in responsibility sharing The cycle of mutual mistrust between EU Member States that prevents solidarity can only be broken if responsibility is assessed fairly on the basis of objective indicators. Philippe De Bruycker, Evangelia (Lilian) Tsourdi 19 Dec 2015
100 FMR 51 - Volunteers and asylum seekers People in communities where asylum seekers and refugees have appeared offered various forms of support to the new arrivals as states failed to provide even the essentials. Serhat Karakayali, J Olaf Kleist 19 Dec 2015