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Shelter in displacement (Forced Migration Review 55)

All displaced people need some form of shelter. Whatever the type of shelter which is found, provided or built, it needs to answer multiple needs: protection from the elements, physical security, safety, comfort, emotional security, some mitigation of risk and unease, and even, as time passes, some semblance of home and community. This FMR looks at the complexity of approaches to shelter both as a physical object in a physical location and as a response to essential human needs. It also contains seven ‘general’ articles on other forced migration topics.

# Episode Title Description People Date
1 FMR 55 - From the Editors All displaced people need some form of shelter, and circumstances dictate that in reality not much of it conforms to the typical picture of a tent or tarpaulin nor meets official standards. Marion Couldrey, Maurice Herson 13 Jul 2017
2 FMR 55 - Refugee settlements and sustainable planning We need to develop refugee settlement planning processes that not only facilitate long-term planning but also allow for incremental upgrading. The case of M’Bera in Mauritania illustrates this. Brett Moore 13 Jul 2017
3 FMR 55 - Shelter in flux Current humanitarian guidelines do not sufficiently cover what shelter means in volatile and protracted conflict settings, particularly outside organised camps. We propose improved tools that will address that gap. Charles Parrack, Brigitte Piquard, Cathrine Brun 13 Jul 2017
4 FMR 55 - An architectural investigation into the provision of refugee accommodation When challenged to investigate accommodation options for refugees in their city, architecture students found that there are simple and plausible architectural answers for the integration of refugees in medium-sized European cities such as A Coruña. Plácido Lizancos, Evaristo Zas 13 Jul 2017
5 FMR 55 - The case for self-recovery Most families recovering from the catastrophe of a disaster rebuild their own homes. This practice of self-recovery by non-displaced communities has potential for displaced populations too. Bill Flinn, Holly Schofield, Luisa Miranda Morel 13 Jul 2017
6 FMR 55 - Pre-fabricated or freely fabricated? The architectural forms of emergency shelters and the ways they are created play a significant role in the ability of their inhabitants to deal with their displacement and to perhaps feel, even temporarily, at home. Irit Katz 13 Jul 2017
7 FMR 55 - Shelter for refugees arriving in Greece, 2015-17 Mass arrivals in Greece since 2015 have far exceeded the supply of acceptable shelter. The attempts to provide solutions continues. John F Wain 13 Jul 2017
8 FMR 55 - From drawing-board to Jungle Our research and development department has been working on a shelter solution in accordance with the requirement of improving logistics, installation, flexibility, the use of natural resources and, above all, the improvement of living conditions. Pedro Sáez, Carmen García 13 Jul 2017
9 FMR 55 - The diversity of data needed to drive design The developers of the Refugee Housing Unit know every aspect and component of their design but can never know what it is like to wake up in one of them every day. Märta Terne, Johan Karlsson, Christian Gustafsson 13 Jul 2017
10 FMR 55 - Choice in shelter solutions in Somalia The complex, inter-linked and multi-dimensional humanitarian challenges in Somalia require equally complex responses in order to be able to bolster the resilience of Somali people. Martijn Goddeeris, Gregg McDonald 13 Jul 2017
11 FMR 55 - Refugees and the city: UN-Habitat’s New Urban Agenda Special protection for refugees and displaced persons should be part of countries’ housing policies. Raffael Beier, Jasmin Fritzsche 13 Jul 2017
12 FMR 55 - Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and Michael Boyle 13 Jul 2017
13 FMR 55 - A camp redefined as part of the city Was what was built at La Linière in Grand-Synthe in northern France a traditional refugee camp or a new kind of urban district? Cyrille Hanappe 13 Jul 2017
14 FMR 55 - Appropriating buildings to house refugees: Berlin Tempelhof As European cities continue to co-opt existing buildings to use as refugee shelters, the inherent spatial characteristics of these structures present significant challenges to the authorities that select the sites and to those who must reside in them. Toby Parsloe 13 Jul 2017
15 FMR 55 - Collective homemaking in transit The daily activities of the residents and volunteers of the City Plaza Refugee Accommodation Centre in Athens and the organisation of the space help to construct a positive notion of ‘home’. Alexandra Koptyaeva 13 Jul 2017
16 FMR 55 - Perpetually temporary shelter in Trieste An old building that has seen displaced people in it many times over many years is being used by the latest group of arrivals, this time from outside Europe. Roberta Altin 13 Jul 2017
17 FMR 55 - The impact of humanitarian shelter and settlements on child protection Insufficient attention has been paid to the design of shelters and settlements in protracted refugee encampments in Eastern Africa. The results invisibly obstruct young children’s development. Nerea Amorós Elorduy 13 Jul 2017
18 FMR 55 - Reducing GBV risks through better shelter programme design Good shelter programming must include mitigation measures throughout the project cycle in order to reduce GBV risks. Amelia Rule, Jessica Izquierdo, Alberto Piccioli 13 Jul 2017
19 FMR 55 - Thriving spaces: greening refugee settlements By incorporating urban agriculture initiatives within refugee camp settings, the concept of shelter can be expanded to include providing protection from the climate, addressing nutritional deficiencies and increasing levels of human dignity, place makin Carrie Perkins, Andrew Adam-Bradford, Mikey Tomkins 13 Jul 2017
20 FMR 55 - Repurposing shelter for displaced people in Ukraine Buildings in Ukraine are being repurposed to provide shelter for those fleeing conflict in the country but, as the war continues, the need for more permanent solutions must be acknowledged. Laura A Dean 13 Jul 2017
21 FMR 55 - Reconstructing ‘home’ in northern Uganda An understanding of shelter in situations of displacement and return must take into consideration both material and non-material dimensions. Alice Anderson-Gough 13 Jul 2017
22 FMR 55 - Planning for the integration of refugee and host communities in Turkana County, Kenya The Kalobeyei New Settlement focuses on the creation of a spatial plan to guide settlement in both the short and the long term to the benefit of both host community and refugees. Yuka Terada, David Evans, Dennis Mwaniki 13 Jul 2017
23 FMR 55 - Poor Albanians who hosted displaced Kosovars The experience of hosting displaced Kosovars is one that at least one Albanian village would prefer not to repeat. Beryl Nicholson 13 Jul 2017
24 FMR 55 - Hosting the displaced – and being hosted A local family hosting a displaced family in their home is becoming a well-recognised form of shelter for families in displacement. Cynthia Caron 13 Jul 2017
25 FMR 55 - Security of tenure in the urban context Addressing the lack of secure tenure and the risk of forced eviction is one of the defining characteristics of urban shelter response. Neil Brighton, Kirstie Farmer, Øyvind Nordlie 13 Jul 2017
26 FMR 55 - The pavements and slums of Dhaka Almost half a million people every year seek refuge in Dhaka, compelled by a nexus of climate change, poverty and environmental degradation. Many end up on living on the pavements. Nellie LeBeau, Hugh Tuckfield 11 Jul 2017
27 FMR 55 - Mass shelters: inappropriate in displacement Mass shelters appear to be an inappropriate shelter solution even in the acute onset of a crisis, creating problems of dignity and security and having significant health consequences. Alena Koscalova, Yann Lelevrier 11 Jul 2017
28 FMR 55 - More design, less innovation Those working in international agencies to develop shelter solutions for displaced populations can learn much from human-centred design practices of professional architects and planners. Mitchell Sipus 11 Jul 2017
29 FMR 55 - The humanitarian-architect divide Humanitarians and architects can fail to find a common language, characterising each other in schematic terms. Tom Scott-Smith 11 Jul 2017
30 FMR 55 - Using public schools as shelter for IDPs in Yemen The two years of conflict in Yemen have created 3.3 million internally displaced person (IDPs), 20% of whom live in spontaneous settlements or collective centres, including public buildings. Schools top the list of the public buildings that are frequently Mohammed Al-Sabahi and Ghaidaa Motahar 11 Jul 2017
31 FMR 55 General - Cash transfer programming: lessons from northern Iraq Cash transfers can be a powerful tool in situations of conflict and forced migration. However, the need to adopt a context- and conflict-sensitive approach is of great importance. Yvonne Deblon, Patrick Gutekunst 11 Jul 2017
32 FMR 55 General - Facilitating ‘reasonable hope’ with refugees and asylum seekers The loss of hope over time has led to despair and a mental health crisis for refugees and asylum seekers on Manus Island and Nauru. Greg Turner 11 Jul 2017
33 FMR 55 General - Vulnerability of refugees with communication disabilities to SGBV: evidence from Rwanda Refugees with communication disabilities are particularly vulnerable to sexual and gender-based violence, in part because of their limited ability to report abuse. Julie Marshall, Helen Barrett, Angelo Ebengo 11 Jul 2017
34 FMR 55 General - The power of education in refugees’ lives: Sri Lankan refugees in India In their determination to take control of an uncertain future, Sri Lankan refugees living in the camps of Tamil Nadu, India, have prioritised education. Antony Jeevarathnam Mayuran 11 Jul 2017
35 FMR 55 General - Children of rape of refugee women, and statelessness, in Egypt The facilitation of birth registration procedures for children born from rape – particularly of refugee women – is necessary in order to prevent statelessness. Mohamed Farahat 11 Jul 2017
36 FMR 55 General - Proving torture: demanding the impossible New research demonstrates that errors by Home Office asylum caseworkers in their handling of expert medical evidence of torture can make it almost impossible for survivors of torture seeking asylum in the UK to prove that they were tortured. Lucy Gregg, Jo Pettitt 11 Jul 2017
37 FMR 55 General - Giving birth in transit through Greece Pregnant refugee women en route through Europe are having to give birth in extremely difficult conditions. They face appalling choices, and their babies risk being stateless. Raquel Esther Jorge Ricart 11 Jul 2017