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displacement

# Episode Title Description People Date
1 FMR 62 - Shared obstacles to return: Rohingya and South Sudanese The common barriers to return in the cases of Rohingya refugees and South Sudanese IDPs prompt serious questions about how to ensure the safety and voluntariness of returns. Daniel P Sullivan 14 Oct 2019
2 FMR 62 - South Sudanese returns: perceptions and responses Gaining insight into the experiences and perceptions of refugees can help ensure programming is better able to support refugees’ durable return and reintegration. Catherine Huser, Andrew Cunningham, Christine Kamau, Mary Obara 14 Oct 2019
3 FMR 62 - Return decision making by refugees There are multiple factors influencing refugees’ decisions to return to their country of origin, not all of which reflect conventional wisdom. Chloe Sydney 14 Oct 2019
4 FMR 62 - Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in India: return or integration? For Tamil refugees, considerations of sustainability affect their decision to remain in India or return to Sri Lanka. Their views and aspirations must inform planning for both integration and repatriation. Amaya Valcárcel Silvela 14 Oct 2019
5 FMR 62 - Syrians in Germany: individuals’ reasons for returning or remaining Syrian refugees in Europe are not one homogenous group but are individuals and families from different parts of Syria who have different experiences in exile and different expectations around return. Ahmad Al Ajlan 14 Oct 2019
6 FMR 62 - Working with ‘stayee’ communities: learning from Eritrea Better understanding of the perceptions and living conditions of the communities into which returnees will arrive may facilitate better integration of those returning from displacement. Georgia Cole 14 Oct 2019
7 FMR 62 - Repatriation principles under pressure The laws and norms established by the international community to ensure that organised repatriation takes place in a way that protects the rights of refugees are increasingly being violated. Jeff Crisp 14 Oct 2019
8 FMR 62 - Durable solutions for returnee children Durable solutions frameworks for measuring progress towards sustainable return and reintegration fail to specifically consider children’s different needs and experiences. Stefanie Barratt, Marion Guillaume, Josiah Kaplan 14 Oct 2019
9 FMR 62 - Syrian refugees’ return from Lebanon Analysis of return practices in Lebanon reveal challenges to voluntary, safe and dignified return. Tamirace Fakhoury, Derya Ozkul 14 Oct 2019
10 FMR 62 - Encouraging Syrian return: Turkey’s fragmented approach Turkey’s approach to encouraging refugees to return to Syria risks jeopardising the safety and voluntariness of such returns. Zeynep Sahin Mencutek 14 Oct 2019
11 FMR 62 - The politics of return from Jordan to Syria Return preparedness of Syrian refugees has become a prominent issue in Jordan, but the prospect of return raises numerous concerns. Julia Morris 14 Oct 2019
12 FMR 62 - Rethinking Somali refugee solutions in Kenya Amid uncertain return conditions, the repatriation of Somali refugees from Kenya risks leading to instances of forced return. Alternative avenues, such as local integration, should be explored. Peter Kirui, Suzanne Francis 14 Oct 2019
13 FMR 62 - Educating for return: Somali refugees in Dadaab Finding a ‘durable’ solution for Somali refugees in Dadaab means ensuring they have the knowledge, capacity, confidence and qualifications required for meaningful, lasting return. Ochan Leomoi, Abdikadir Abikar, HaEun Kim 14 Oct 2019
14 FMR 62 - Forced to return? Facilitated return of refugees to Myanmar Despite recent political developments in Myanmar and difficult conditions in Thailand, there has been widespread and deep-seated reluctance among refugees to participate in the official facilitated return mechanism. Yuka Hasegawa 14 Oct 2019
15 FMR 62 - A premature attempt at cessation There are many lessons to be learned from UNHCR’s controversial – and ultimately reversed – decision to end refugee status for Burmese Chins in India and Malaysia. Hamsa Vijayaraghavan, Pallavi Saxena 14 Oct 2019
16 FMR 62 - Repatriation with dignity The Rohingya in Bangladesh and Syrians in Lebanon have different expectations of what repatriation ‘with dignity’ would entail. Kerrie Holloway 14 Oct 2019
17 FMR 62 - Minority return: the way home Studying cases of successful minority return may help determine what policies could help other potential returnees. Djordje Stefanovic, Neophytos Loizides 14 Oct 2019
18 FMR 62 - Legal preparedness for return to Syria Preparation in terms of legal rights is crucial for Syrian refugees who are planning to return. Martin Clutterbuck, Laura Cunial, Paola Barsanti, Tina Gewis 14 Oct 2019
19 FMR 62 - Return to Syria after evading conscription Syrian refugees who have evaded military service face barriers to return which call into question the viability and sustainability of other refugee returns. Ahmad Araman, Shaza Loutfi 14 Oct 2019
20 FMR 62 - IDPs of East Beirut versus the Lebanese State This year marks the thirtieth anniversary of the Taif agreement that formally ended the Lebanese Civil War of 1975–1990. Three decades later, some communities remain internally displaced because of the actions of the State. Diala Lteif 14 Oct 2019
21 FMR 62 - Emerging options for durable solutions in Darfur IDPs in Darfur continue to face difficulties in securing a durable solution to their displacement. Recent developments may offer new hope for some, but complex challenges remain. Zurab Elzarov 14 Oct 2019
22 FMR 62 - Political and economic reintegration: key to successful return Refugees and IDPs require national and international actors to make concerted efforts to ensure that they are successfully reintegrated into the economic, social and political landscapes of their countries of origin. Barbra N Lukunka, Peter de Clercq 14 Oct 2019
23 FMR 62 - Returns in complex environments: the case of South Sudan Humanitarian agencies must be extremely cautious about how they support returns and relocations to ensure that they avoid causing harm or allowing humanitarian assistance to be instrumentalised by political actors. Babette Schots, Garth Smith 14 Oct 2019
24 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Preventing displacement, addressing root causes and the promise of the Global Compact on Refugees Preventing displacement by addressing its root causes requires a holistic approach and engagement by a wide range of actors. The starting point must be a better understanding of root causes and their complexity. Volker Türk 14 Oct 2019
25 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Shifting power and changing practice to support locally led peace building Building sustainable peace requires both a greater awareness of the dynamics of localised conflict and a willingness on the part of external actors to cede control to local actors. Alex Shoebridge 14 Oct 2019
26 FMR 62 Mini-feature - Land and conflict: taking steps towards peace Thousands of displaced Yazidis in Iraq have been assisted in making a safe, sustainable return through a project that addressed the complexity of issues around land tenure. Oumar Sylla, Ombretta Tempra, Filiep Decorte, Clarissa Augustinus 14 Oct 2019
27 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Community-level conflict prevention and peace building in DRC and Somalia There is growing recognition of the need to address the root causes of displacement through the perspective of the humanitarian-development-peace ‘triple nexus’. A locally led programme in DRC and Somalia reflects this approach and offers useful lessons. Wale Osofisan, Shuna Keen 14 Oct 2019
28 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Gang violence, GBV and hate crime in Central America: State response versus State responsibility Significant displacement is caused in Central America by gang violence, gender-based violence and hate crimes against LGBT+ people but State responses have failed to address their root causes. Vickie Knox 14 Oct 2019
29 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - The Palestinian refugee question: root causes and breaking the impasse Acknowledging the root causes of Palestinian displacement and objectively applying international law will be key to any solution to the Palestinian refugee question. Francesca P Albanese, Damian Lilly 14 Oct 2019
30 FMR 62 - Mini-feature - Resilience spaces: rethinking protection Collaborative approaches to building capacities of urban IDPs and host communities are emerging as a more effective way of confronting the root causes of protracted and secondary displacement in informal settlements in Colombia. Pablo Cortés Ferrández 14 Oct 2019
31 Lande: The Calais 'Jungle' and Beyond Book at Lunchtime seminar held on 16th October 2019. Dan Hicks, Sarah Mallet, Wes Williams, Leonie Ansems de Vries 06 Oct 2019
32 FMR 60 - General - Implementing the Global Compacts: the importance of a whole-of-society approach The global community must now take incisive, coordinated action through a whole-of-society approach to push forward the effective implementation of the two Global Compacts. Tamara Domicelj, Carolina Gottardo 20 Feb 2019
33 FMR 60 - General - Localisation: we are frustrated, not stupid! The Grand Bargain promises much but an inherent lack of trust in the international system is hampering local capacity building. Listowell Efe Usen 20 Feb 2019
34 FMR 60 Evidence for education in emergencies: who decides and why it matters Analysis of educational research funding proposals submitted to Dubai Cares, a global education funder, indicates an alarming absence of input from local actors and end-users at all steps of the process. Nadeen Alalami 20 Feb 2019
35 FMR 60 - Feasible measurement of learning in emergencies: lessons from Uganda A new assessment tool aims to provide a rapid, holistic understanding of displaced learners' needs. Nikhit D'Sa, Allyson Krupar, Clay Westrope 20 Feb 2019
36 FMR 60 - Improving learning environments in emergencies through community participation An education in emergencies toolkit developed by Save the Children looks at how learning environments can be improved through community participation. Zeina Bali 20 Feb 2019
37 FMR 60 - Schooling gaps for Syrian refugees in Turkey Turkey and the wider international community must address gaps in educational provision so that Syrian refugees can access appropriate opportunities to learn. Melissa Hauber-Özer 20 Feb 2019
38 FMR 60 - Navigating curricula choices for Palestine refugees Curriculum choices matter greatly in countries that host large number of refugees for increasingly long periods of time. Jo Kelcey 20 Feb 2019
39 FMR 60 - Street schools and school buses: informal education provision in France In the face of increasingly limited access to schooling for asylum seekers and migrants in France, volunteer initiatives have sprung up to provide much-needed informal education. Maria Hagan 19 Feb 2019
40 FMR 60 - Early childhood development and psychosocial support in Syria Programming for early childhood development and psychosocial support needs to be able to evolve in order to cater for changing needs and to respond to emerging challenges. Fatima Khaddour 19 Feb 2019
41 FMR 60 - Foreword: Education – a humanitarian and development imperative For far too long, donors and the international community have neglected education in humanitarian response. Switzerland was no exception. Food, water, health and shelter were the usual priorities during emergencies, while education was considered more of Manuel Bessler 19 Feb 2019
42 FMR 60 - Gender equality in education in emergencies Evidence from programming built around this framework shows how a gender-responsive approach can alleviate the particular risks that face girls and boys during crisis and displacement. Eva Iversen, Else Oestergaard 19 Feb 2019
43 FMR 60 - From the editors In this issue of FMR, authors from around the world debate how better to enable access to quality education both in emergency settings and in resettlement and asylum contexts. Marion Couldrey, Jenny Peebles 01 Feb 2019
44 FMR 60 - Feeling safe enough to learn in a conflict zone Building an internal sense of safety while also teaching coping skills and how to remain alert to the very real risks outside is essential if psychosocial programming in Afghanistan is to provide a ‘safe space’ for children to learn in a context of high i Bethan McEvoy 01 Feb 2019
45 FMR 60 - Breaking the silence: sexual coercion and abuse in post-conflict education Experience from the Central African Republic makes clear that global efforts to increase numbers of children in school, particularly in conflict-affected areas and for displaced children, need to pay greater attention to safety and accountability. Sophie Bray-Watkins 01 Feb 2019
46 FMR 60 - Strengthening education systems for long-term education responses Implementation of programmes in DRC and Nigeria demonstrates how the building blocks for long-term improvements can be laid in the earliest stages of an education in emergencies response, even in the most challenging contexts. Thea Lacey, Marcello Viola 01 Feb 2019
47 FMR 60 - Jordan: education policy in transition As the education sector in Jordan moves from a humanitarian to a development response, a lack of planning for an appropriate transition risks excluding some groups of learners. Julie Chinnery 01 Feb 2019
48 FMR 60 - Applying learning theory to shape 'good learning' in emergencies: experience from Dadaab, Kenya Applying one learning theory retrospectively to a non-formal education programme for youth shows how learning theories can be used to assess learning in diverse EiE programmes. Allyson Krupar, Marina L Anselme 01 Feb 2019
49 FMR 60 - Child-friendly spaces: enhancing their role in improving learning outcomes Providing psychosocial support to children through the medium of child-friendly spaces can improve learning outcomes for children but requires more localised, partnership-driven and gender-responsive approaches and strengthened monitoring and evaluation. Gurvinder Singh, Charlotte Tocchio 01 Feb 2019
50 FMR 60 - Refugee children with communication disability in Rwanda: providing the educational services they need Research undertaken in Rwanda aims to provide firm evidence for use in improving access to inclusive educational services for refugee children with communication disability. Helen Barrett, Julie Marshall, Juliet Goldbart 01 Feb 2019
51 FMR 60 - Refugee education in Greece: integration or segregation? Although education policies have been devised to integrate these children into the Greek education system, these policies have actually led to some students being segregated. Giorgos Simopoulos, Antonios Alexandridis 01 Feb 2019
52 FMR 60 - Accessing and thriving in education in the UK Research shows that significant barriers confront refugee and asylum-seeker children arriving in the UK in terms of them getting into school and thriving in education. Catherine Gladwell 01 Feb 2019
53 FMR 60 - Learning in resettlement Education is a central element of resettled families’ lives and providing support to parents and children to learn about and integrate into the education system is essential. Marwa Belghazi 01 Feb 2019
54 FMR 60 - UK immigration policy: restrictions on asylum seekers' right to study Changes to immigration legislation in the UK have led to restrictions on many asylum seekers' right to study. Helen Baron 01 Feb 2019
55 FMR 60 - 'Education is key to life': The the importance of education from the perspective of displaced learners Students on the University of East London's OLIve course – a preparatory course for university access specifically tailored to refugees and asylum seekers in the UK – share experiences of accessing education as displaced learners. OLIve course Students, IT trainer, director of the OLIve course 01 Feb 2019
56 FMR 60 - Educating unaccompanied children in US shelters Educational services provided to unaccompanied children in government-funded shelters in the US must be examined more critically in order to better meet the children’s varied needs – and federal standards for public education. Kylie Diebold, Kerri Evans, Emily Hornung 01 Feb 2019
57 FMR 60 - Teachers in displacement: learning from Dadaab Despite the challenges they face, refugee teachers believe in the potential of education to transform the lives of refugee learners and communities. Their voices and needs must inform refugee education provision in order to improve access and outcomes. Mohamed Duale, Ochan Leomoi, Abdullahi Aden, Okello Oyat 01 Feb 2019
58 FMR 60 - Child labour and school attendance in Turkey Promoting self-sufficiency for displaced populations can have the unintended consequence of undermining efforts to provide education for all Syrian children. Ozlem Erden 01 Feb 2019
59 FMR 60 - Inter-sectoral cooperation for Afghan refugee education in Iran A recent decree in Iran removed a legal barrier to undocumented refugee children attending school but other barriers remain. One non-governmental organisation discusses the successes and challenges of adopting an inter-sectoral approach. Reem Shammout, Olivier Vandecasteele 01 Feb 2019
60 FMR 60 - Connected learning: the future for higher education? Higher education institutions in Lebanon should consider how connected learning can improve access to higher education for young refugees and members of the host community. Hana Addam El-Ghali, Emma Ghosn 01 Feb 2019
61 FMR 60 - Connected learning: a refugee assessment Connected learning offers the opportunity to expand access to higher education for refugees, benefiting both individuals and communities. Moise Dushime, Eugenie Manirafasha, Kalenga Mbonyinshuti 01 Feb 2019
62 FMR 60 - The importance of access and accreditation: learning from the Thailand–Myanmar border The displaced community on the Thailand–Myanmar border has long provided for the basic educational needs of large numbers of children. Providing accredited education, however, remains a struggle. Mary Purkey, Megan Irving 01 Feb 2019
63 FMR 60 - Adult literacy: an essential component of the CRRF Literacy needs among the refugee populations of Uganda and Ethiopia are vast, yet although both are CRRF pilot countries – and therefore in theory committed to promoting literacy – functional adult literacy is barely supported at all. Massimo Lanciotti 01 Feb 2019
64 FMR 59 General - Assisting displaced people: a shared responsibility Enyimba kwe nu. When we work together, we achieve more. Iwuoha Chima Iwuoha 30 Oct 2018
65 Creative Commons Vulnerability, Poverty, Displacement and the absence of Interim Arrangements: Karen Communities in Ceasefire areas of Southeast Burma/Myanmar Tim Schroeder speaks at the 'The Karen in 2017: Resilience, Aspirations and Politics' workshop on 15 June 2017. Tim Schroeder 04 Jul 2018
66 FMR 57 - Balancing the rights of displaced, returning and remaining populations: learning from Iraq The return of some 3.1 million IDPs in Iraq to their places of origin is seen as a benchmark of success in the aftermath of the recent civil war. However, the situation is complex. Nadia Siddiqui 27 Feb 2018
67 FMR 56 - Criminal violence in Honduras as a driver of displacement The impact of violence is felt daily in the Northern Triangle of Central America and is a major driver of displacement, yet its very nature obstructs identification of and access to those in need of protection. Suzanna Nelson-Pollard 31 Oct 2017
68 FMR 56 - New drivers of displacement in Colombia Violence and displacement have not ended with the signing of the peace agreement in Colombia. Alfredo Campos García 31 Oct 2017
69 FMR 56 - Venezuelan displacement: a challenge to Brazil Brazil must strengthen its reception and integration of fleeing Venezuelans. Helisane Mahlke, Lilian Yamamoto 31 Oct 2017
70 FMR 56 General - Towards a development approach to displacement o better respond to displacement, we need to adopt a medium- to long-term perspective rooted in development as well as humanitarian principles. Xavier Devictor 30 Oct 2017
71 Energy for the Displaced part three Michael Keating and Glada Lahn (Chatham House) give a talk for the Energy for the Displaced panel. Michael Keating, Glada Lahn 02 Dec 2016
72 Energy for the Displaced part two Ben Good (GVEP International) gives a talk for the Energy for the Displaced panel. Ben Good 02 Dec 2016
73 Energy for the Displaced part one Christopher Baker-Brian (BBOXX) gives a talk for the Energy for the Displaced panel. Christopher Baker-Brian 02 Dec 2016
74 FMR 53 - Northern Uganda: protection in displacement, protection on return In the absence of international or state assistance and protection, community members in northern Uganda stepped in to fill this vacuum both during displacement and throughout the laborious return process following the conflict’s end. Denise Dunovant 12 Oct 2016
75 FMR 52 - Development cooperation and addressing ‘root causes' Development has its place in dealing with the roots of displacement but it is not an alternative to important measures. Steffen Angenendt, Anne Koch, Amrei Meier 15 Aug 2016
76 FMR 52 - Conceptual challenges and practical solutions in situations of internal displacement In situations of internal displacement, a variety of political, operational, ethical and practical challenges complicate our understanding and response and the adequate implementation of durable solutions. Chaloka Beyani, Natalia Krynsky Baal, Martina Caterina 12 Jul 2016
77 Creative Commons Memoir and Mortality, Silence in the Archives Conference Panel 4a This podcast is one of ten podcasts recorded at the 'Silence in the Archives' conference hosted by the Oxford Centre of Life-Writing at Wolfson College, Oxford on 7 November 2015. Wendy Jones, Sophie Coulombeau, Joetta Harty 16 Feb 2016
78 Creative Commons Documenting Displacement, Silence in the Archives Conference Panel 4b This podcast is one of ten podcasts recorded at the 'Silence in the Archives' conference hosted by the Oxford Centre of Life-Writing at Wolfson College, Oxford on 7 November 2015. Molly Mann, Carrie Crockett, Lorraine Paterson 16 Feb 2016
79 Creative Commons FMR 49 - From the Editors An introductory note on FMR 49, 'Disasters and displacement in a changing climate', from the Editors. Marion Couldrey, Maurice Herson 18 Jun 2015
80 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Foreward In order to make progress on disasters, climate change and human mobility, it is essential to bring together different strands of the discussion to develop a comprehensive response that also anticipates future challenges associated with climate change. Børge Brende, Didier Burkhalter 18 Jun 2015
81 Creative Commons FMR 49 - The Nansen Initiative: building consensus on displacement in disaster contexts The Nansen Initiative consultative process has identified a toolbox of potential policy options to prevent, prepare for and respond to the challenges of cross-border displacement in disaster contexts, including the effects of climate change. Walter Kälin 18 Jun 2015
82 Creative Commons FMR 49 - National Adaptation Plans and human mobility In order to avoid displacement when possible, displacement and human mobility issues need to be better integrated within national and regional adaptation planning processes. Koko Warner, Walter Kälin, Susan Martin, Youssef Nassef 18 Jun 2015
83 Creative Commons FMR 49 - The state of the evidence Researchers have much to do, not only to understand climate- and disaster-induced migration but also to transmit their understanding for the use of policymakers and practitioners. Justin Ginnetti 18 Jun 2015
84 Creative Commons FMR 49 - The necessity for an ethnographic approach in Peru A movement of people is rarely explained by environmental or climatic factors alone. Therefore an analysis which does not take into consideration the cultural consequences of climate change for affected societies is incomplete. Geremia Cometti 18 Jun 2015
85 Creative Commons FMR 49 - An integrated focus The key to successfully addressing the challenges of environmental, climatic and natural disasters is integrating migration concerns – including displacement – into all climate change, disaster risk reduction and development policies and frameworks. William Lacy Swing 18 Jun 2015
86 Creative Commons FMR 49 - West Africa: a testing ground for regional solutions West Africa has a very mobile population and high vulnerability to natural hazards. It also, however, has a number of regional cooperation agreements and may therefore be a useful testing ground for addressing cross-border disaster displacement. Julia Blocher, Dalila Gharbaoui, Sara Vigil 18 Jun 2015
87 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Development and displacement risks The impact of climate change induces systemic patterns of socio-economic erosion that also affect the dynamics of disaster displacement and that require parallel responses. Glaucia Boyer, Matthew McKinnon 18 Jun 2015
88 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Developing temporary protection in Africa Formalised temporary protection arrangements in Africa could significantly improve access to territory and human rights for people displaced across borders by disasters. Such arrangements must adhere to states’ existing protection obligations. Tamara Wood 18 Jun 2015
89 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Climate effects on nomadic pastoralist societies Oman and Mongolia reflect the modern climatic and social challenges to mobile pastoral livelihoods. Dawn Chatty, Troy Sternberg 18 Jun 2015
90 FMR 49 - Guidance for ‘managed’ relocation The international community has been slow to develop climate change-specific instruments to guide the relocation process beyond those that relate to displacement generally. Brent Doberstein, Anne Tadgell 18 Jun 2015
91 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Preparing for planned relocation Preparing for planned relocation FMR 18 Jun 2015
92 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Lessons from planned relocation and resettlement in the past Placing contemporary deliberations about relocation within a longer historical and intellectual framework reveals unexpected connections and salutary lessons. Jane McAdam 18 Jun 2015
93 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Post-disaster resettlement in urban Bolivia Post-disaster resettlement programmes can be unsuitable and ineffective, often exacerbating the vulnerability of people to the effects of climate change. Gemma Sou 18 Jun 2015
94 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Focusing on climate-related internal displacement Global attention should place a primary focus on the application of best practice and the development of innovative initiatives to solve climate-related internal displacement, rather than on grappling with the far rarer movements of people across borders. Scott Leckie, Ezekiel Simperingham 18 Jun 2015
95 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Brazil’s draft law for environmental migrants Brazil is developing a long-term solution for filling a legislative gap affecting environmental migrants. Isabela Piacentini de Andrade 18 Jun 2015
96 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Disasters, displacement and a new framework in the Americas There is a startling range of positive examples of national law, policy and practice all across the Americas that states have used to respond to the migratory consequences of disasters. David James Cantor 18 Jun 2015
97 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Temporary protection arrangements to fill a gap in the protection regime Predictable measures are needed to provide protection for people displaced across borders by disasters, where there is currently a gap. Volker Türk 18 Jun 2015
98 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Refugees, climate change and international law How can the category of ‘climate refugee’ be considered within international law in the 21st century? María José Fernández 18 Jun 2015
99 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Displacement as a consequence of climate change mitigation policies Climate change mitigation policies and ‘green solutions’, such as biofuels, are also creating displacement. Sara Vigil 18 Jun 2015
100 Creative Commons FMR 49 - Statelessness and environmental displacement Stateless people and migrants are at greater risk of displacement and are less likely to receive assistance; in turn, environmental displacement (especially multiple migrations) heightens the risk of becoming stateless. Jessie Connell 18 Jun 2015