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Detention and deportation (Forced Migration Review 44)

Asylum seekers and refugees – men, women and even children – are increasingly detained and interned around the world, as are numbers of other migrants. Sometimes detained indefinitely and often in appalling conditions, they may suffer not only deprivation of their liberty but other abuses of their human rights too. Detention may appear to be a convenient solution to states’ political quest to manage migration (often as a precursor to deportation) but it is an expensive option and has lasting effects on those detained. In the search for a more humane – and cheaper – approach, agencies and government authorities have trialled a variety of alternatives to detention. FMR 44 includes 36 articles on immigration detention, alternatives to detention, and deportation, plus a mini-feature on the Syria crisis and a selection of other articles.

See more at: http://www.fmreview.org/detention

# Episode Title Description People Date
1 Creative Commons FMR 44 Freedom of movement of Afghan refugees in Iran Although legally justifiable, increasing restrictions on movement and work for refugees in Iran have detrimental effects for the refugees. Farshid Farzin, Safinaz Jadali 04 Oct 2013
2 Creative Commons FMR 44 Insights from the refugee response in Cameroon The integration of Central African refugees into existing Cameroonian communities has had far-reaching development impacts on the region and the state as a whole. Angela Butel 04 Oct 2013
3 Creative Commons FMR 44 UNHCR in Uganda: better than its reputation suggests Mistrust and fear abound among Rwandan refugees in Uganda. The dearth of information available about cessation urgently needs to be addressed by UNHCR. Will Jones 04 Oct 2013
4 Creative Commons FMR 44 Post-deportation monitoring: why, how and by whom? The monitoring of refused asylum seekers post-deportation is critical to effective protection. Leana Podeszfa, Friederike Vetter 04 Oct 2013
5 Creative Commons FMR 44 Deportation of South Sudanese from Israel Israel's aggressive campaign of arrest and deportation of South Sudanese asylum seekers contravenes the principle of non-refoulement and international standards for voluntary, dignified return. Laurie Lijnders 04 Oct 2013
6 Creative Commons FMR 44 Assisted voluntary return schemes While AVR is clearly preferable to deportation, NGOs and academics alike have criticised these schemes for being misleadingly labelled and lacking genuine voluntariness. Anne Koch 04 Oct 2013
7 Creative Commons FMR 44 Shortcomings in assistance for deported Afghan youth Programmes to assist deported Afghan youth to reintegrate on their return are failing miserably. There needs to be much greater awareness of what it is like for them when they return, and of good practice in implementing such programmes. Nassim Majidi 04 Oct 2013
8 Creative Commons FMR 44 No longer a child: from the UK to Afghanistan Young Afghans forced to return to Kabul having spent formative years in the UK encounter particular risks and lack any tailored support on their return. Catherine Gladwell 04 Oct 2013
9 Creative Commons FMR 44 State reluctance to use alternatives to detention States continue to show a marked reluctance to implement alternatives to immigration detention. The reason for this may well be because such alternatives ignore the disciplinary function of detention by which states coerce people into cooperation. Clément de Senarclens 04 Oct 2013
10 Creative Commons FMR 44 Questions over alternatives to detention programmes Alternative to detention programmes may be less restrictive and less expensive than formal detention but they may still have drawbacks. The provision of competent legal advice appears to be key to low rates of absconding. Stephanie J Silverman 04 Oct 2013
11 Creative Commons FMR 44 Flawed assessment process leads to under-use of alternatives in Sweden Sweden is often held up as following 'best practice' in legislation with regard to detention and alternatives to detention but research by the Swedish Red Cross highlights a number of flaws. Maite Zamacona 03 Oct 2013
12 Creative Commons FMR 44 Community detention in Australia: a more humane way forward A group of Australian advocates lobbied successfully for the implementation of community detention as a viable, humane alternative, giving asylum seekers an opportunity to engage in a more meaningful existence. Catherine Marshall, Suma Pillai, Louise Stack 03 Oct 2013
13 Creative Commons FMR 44 Alternatives to detention: open family units in Belgium Preliminary outcomes of an alternative to detention programme in Belgium, based on case management and individual 'coaches' for families, are positive and merit consideration by other countries. Liesbeth Schockaert 03 Oct 2013
14 Creative Commons FMR 44 New models for alternatives to detention in the US While there is growing recognition of the value of community-based alternatives to detention in the US, shortfalls in funding and political will are hindering implementation of improved services and best practice. Megan Bremer, Kimberly Haynes, Nicholas Kang, Michael D Lynch 03 Oct 2013
15 Creative Commons FMR 44 Alternatives to detention in the UK: from enforcement to engagement? The UK detains migrants on a large scale, and has had limited success in developing alternatives. The British experience highlights the need for a cultural shift towards engagement with migrants in place of reliance on enforcement. Jerome Phelps 03 Oct 2013
16 Creative Commons FMR 44 Predisposed to cooperate Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination (RSD) system and other immigration procedures. Cathryn Costello, Esra Kaytaz 03 Oct 2013
17 Creative Commons FMR 44 Thinking outside the fence The way in which we think about detention can shape our ability to consider the alternatives. What is needed is a shift in thinking away from place-based control and towards risk assessment, management and targeted enforcement. Robyn Sampson 03 Oct 2013
18 Creative Commons FMR 44 Immigration detention: looking at the alternatives Endangering the health and well-being of people by detaining them is unnecessary; governments can instead use community-based alternatives that are more dignified for migrants and more cost-effective for states. Philip Amaral 03 Oct 2013
19 Creative Commons FMR 44 Do higher standards of detention promote well-being? Sweden is generally considered to have high standards of immigrant detention. Irrespective of the high standards life in detention still poses a huge threat to the health and wellbeing of detained irregular migrants. Soorej Jose Puthoopparambil, Beth Maina-Ahlberg, Magdalena Bjerneld 03 Oct 2013
20 Creative Commons FMR 44 Women: the invisible detainees Research by the Women's Refugee Commission into immigration detention of women in the US explores why and how differences in treatment between men and women in detention matter. Michelle Brané, Lee Wang 03 Oct 2013
21 Creative Commons FMR 44 A last resort in cases of wrongful detention and deportation in Africa Where this is no viable forum to address human rights violations by African states, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights will consider such violations. Matthew C Kane, Susan F Kane 03 Oct 2013
22 Creative Commons FMR 44 Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers. Lucy Kiama, Dennis Likule 03 Oct 2013
23 Creative Commons FMR 44 Detention of women: principles of equality and non-discrimination International principles of equality and non-discrimination must be applied to the UK's immigration detention system, which at present fails to meet even the minimum standards which apply in prisons. Ali McGinley 03 Oct 2013
24 Creative Commons FMR 44 Security rhetoric and detention in South Africa The South Africa example is instructive in demonstrating both the limits and the dangers of the increasing reliance on detention as a migration management tool. Roni Amit 03 Oct 2013
25 Creative Commons FMR 44 New European standards On 29 June 2013 the amended 'Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast)' became law. Dersim Yabasun 03 Oct 2013
26 Creative Commons FMR 44 Threats to liberty in Germany Those seeking asylum in Germany face fast-track assessments, risk of immediate detention and deportation, and lengthy stays in 'communal shelters' scattered throughout Germany. Jolie Chai 03 Oct 2013
27 Creative Commons FMR 44 Closed detention in the Czech Republic: on what grounds? Despite relatively good conditions in the Czech Republic's closed detention facilities, serious questions should be asked about the justification for detention. Beata Szakacsova 03 Oct 2013
28 Creative Commons FMR 44 My story: indefinite detention in the UK When I fled civil war to come to the UK, I thought that I would be free but instead of helping me, the UK detained me for three years. William 03 Oct 2013
29 Creative Commons FMR 44 A return to the Pacific Solution Over the last 50 years, Australian governments have introduced a range of measures that seek to deter asylum seekers. Current practice sees asylum seekers once again detained in offshore detention in neighbouring countries. Fiona McKay 03 Oct 2013
30 Creative Commons FMR 44 Be careful what you wish for Can the promotion of liberal norms have an unintended and damaging impact on how states confront the challenges of irregular immigration? Michael Flynn 03 Oct 2013
31 Creative Commons FMR 44 Detention monitoring newly established in Japan Recently established monitoring committees in Japan are opening new channels of communication and opportunities for improvements in detention facilities. Naoko Hashimoto 03 Oct 2013
32 Creative Commons FMR 44 No change: foreigner internment centres in Spain Draft regulations for the running of Spain's Foreigner Internment Centres fall far short of the hopes and demands of those campaigning for better guarantees of the rights of detainees. Cristina Manzanedo 03 Oct 2013
33 Creative Commons FMR 44 Captured childhood States should develop alternatives to immigration detention to ensure that children are free to live in a community-based setting throughout the resolution of their immigration status. David Corlett 03 Oct 2013
34 Creative Commons FMR 44 The impact of immigration detention on children States often detain children without adequate attention to international law and in conditions that can be inhumane and damaging. Asylum-seeking and refugee children must have their rights protected. Alice Farmer 03 Oct 2013
35 Creative Commons FMR 44 Health at risk in immigration detention facilities Since 2004 Médecins Sans Frontières has provided medical and psychosocial support for asylum seekers and migrants held in different immigration detention facilities across Europe. Ioanna Kotsioni, Aurelie Ponthieu, Stella Egidi 03 Oct 2013
36 Creative Commons FMR 44 Voices from inside Australia's detention centres At the heart of the asylum debate in Australia there is little sense of the individual in question. People who had previously been asylum seekers in immigration detention express in their own words the impact that detention had on them. Melissa Phillips 25 Sep 2013
37 Creative Commons FMR 44 Establishing arbitrariness There is no understanding of what the term "arbitrary" entails; understanding it requires awareness of the different factors affecting how individual deprivations of liberty are examined and understood. Stephen Phillips 25 Sep 2013
38 Creative Commons FMR 44 Psychological harm and the case for alternatives Studies in countries around the world have consistently found high levels of psychiatric symptoms among imprisoned asylum seekers, both adults and children. Janet Cleveland 25 Sep 2013
39 Creative Commons FMR 44 Detention under scrutiny UNHCR's new detention guidelines challenge governments to rethink their detention policies and to consider alternatives to detention in every case. Alice Edwards 25 Sep 2013
40 Creative Commons FMR 44 From the editors From the editors. The editors 25 Sep 2013